By developing strategies based around the three main theories of learning, I will explain how to use these methods to manage learner's behaviour and influence the learning environment....
Most people associate learning disability to the development of a child, thus assuming that it is a short-term condition and disappears as the person matures.
Thorndyke’s experiment on animals (Avis et al, 2010) to encourage ‘learned’ behaviour was through a process of trial and error, rewarding animas with food if they were successful in their task.
Behavioral learning highlights the association learning that occurs as the individual develops conditioned responses contingent on the association to a stimulus.
Affective strategies serve to govern emotions, motivation and attitudes, whereas social categories are actions which learners choose to adopt in order to interact with other learners and with native speakers.
The components of the Social Learning Theory can explain why this habit was formed. Being late I do not become any negative experience or any problems, so I continue this habit (Operating Conditioning). On the other hand, I have learned this habit from mother even not acting in such a way at first. I observed her being late, collected information for my subconscious and later adopted this habit (Observational Learning). Moreover, being late one time and getting no punishment for it, I start doing it systematically and developed a habit (Classical Operating).
To sum, the personality comes through several stages while forming a particular habit. This habit is developed on the bases of previous experience, social acceptance and knowledge collected in the process of life.
Our bad habits can be explained with the help of the behavioral personality theory and the social learning theory. For example, my bad habit is not to come in time. I am used to being late from my early childhood. Now I realize that my mother influenced the adoption of this bad habit. First of all, she is not very punctual too. When I was a little child, we were always late in the kindergarten. At home I could always put my housework off till the latest deadline and never got punishment for it. Then I was often late at school, however, our teachers were not very strict and I continued to develop this bad habit. The behaviorist theory can explain the process of formation of this ad habit. First of all, it is based on the past experience: I got used to being late in the childhood and repeat this behavioral pattern in my today’s life. Secondly, my bad behavior does not get any negative response: being late, I get no punishment for it. Thirdly, it was formed in the society: I look at my mother who is often late and adopt the same habit.
George Boeree, at ShippensburgUniversity, provides a short biography of Albert Bandura, describes someof the early research in social learning, defines many of the key termsand concepts.
In the Social Learning theory the type of learning without practice is called Observational learning: we can read books, observe other people, hear stories. In such a way we obtain knowledge but do not change out behavior. “Even though we don’t perform the activity we learned, we still maintain both an internal and external belief about the outcome of that activity. If we see the outcome as negative, even though we may be wrong, we are less likely to engage in it” (Nye, 1996, p. 97). This conception was proposed and developed by Bandura.
The article also presents a history of psychologists' accountsof the Albert study, focusing on the study's distortion by Watson himself,general textbook authors, behavior therapists, and most recently, a prominentlearning theorist.
We can use both these theories, Behaviorism and Social Learning, while speaking about personality formation, especially taking into account that Social Learning theory originates from the behaviorist conception. They both state that personality is formed in the society and behavior is determined by the experience the person had in the past. However, representatives of Social Learning theory criticize the traditional behaviorist’s view of personality. They state that human behavior is a complicated mechanism and experiments with animals will never present a complex view of the personality. Opponents of Social Learning state that the process of learning does not always presume changes in behavior, while behaviorists insist that leaning is impossible without such changes.
A learning theory attempts to explain how people and animals learn, whereas the social learning theories take to a different level; they attempt to explain how organisms learn in social settings.