The project of European integration was thus intended to contain Germany by rendering her structurally incapable of and culturally indisposed towards military aggression.
After each contest, the German Question posed itself anew: how to order the European centre in such a way that it was robust enough to master domestic and external challenges without at the same time developing hegemonic tendencies.
Before reaching their own judgement on the issue, pupils compared the interpretations of three historians and discussed how and why they had reached different conclusions about the causes of the First World War. At the end of the enquiry, pupils wrote an essay answering the question ‘Did Germany cause the First World War?’
Its sheer populousness, the industriousness of its inhabitants and the prowess of its soldiers made Germany the most valued prize in the state system. For much of the past 500 years, the fear was not that Germany itself would disturb the European balance of power but that an outside force would use the Germans to do so.
Pupil E shows a detailed knowledge of the causes of the First Wold War. She has produced a consistent response, arguing that Germany was largely to blame for the war. Her essay shows a good understanding of nationalism, militarism and imperialism as long-term causes of the war and of the role of the Kaiser in causing the conflict. Her points about nationalism were confused, but overall, she produced a clear line of argument supported by detailed knowledge.
Pupil E investigated the enquiry question set by her teacher. She drew conclusions from a range of source materials and produced a relevant, structured and detailed piece of work. Her essay could have been improved by writing an effective introduction and by making stronger connections between different causal factors.
I love your photos, they always express so many great emotions. I have never experienced fall season in Germany, but spent a few days in Berlin last winter. The trees look so charming and lovely :). Amazing view, I’m so jealous! It’s so sunny here in China I just can’t stand it anymore. Wish I could swap for a week or two with you!
The German Confederation of 1815, the successor to the empire, was constructed on very similar lines in order to ensure that Germany did not lapse into civil war and that it remained strong enough to repel invaders, but never became so strong as to pose a threat to its neighbours.
Yet while pacifying Europe, and containing Germany, required a constitutional arrangement and political culture similar to those of the old Holy Roman empire, keeping the Russians out demanded a mighty union comparable to that created by the British and the Americans.
Last night I tried to force myself to get on the plane to fly to LA for all the nominee events, but the feelings of embarrassment and anger knocked me back, and I couldn’t get on the plane. I imagined how it would feel for me to sit amongst all those Hollywood stars, some of the brave ones approaching me with sad faces and condolences. There I was, feeling a sting of shame that reminded me of America’s earliest affirmations of my inadequacy as a transperson. I turned around at the airport and went back home.
After the war, the Allies occupied Germany, outlawed the Nazi Party and worked to purge its influence from every aspect of German life. The party’s swastika flag quickly became a symbol of evil in modern postwar culture. Although Hitler killed himself before he could be brought to justice, a number of Nazi officials were convicted of war crimes in the Nuremberg trials, which took place in Nuremberg, Germany, from 1945 to 1949.
Europe boomed, though Germany itself – which was grappling with the costs of absorbing the former German Democratic Republic – struggled economically in the first decade after unification.
After conquering Poland, Hitler focused on defeating Britain and France. As the war expanded, the Nazi Party formed alliances with Japan and Italy in the Tripartite Pact of 1940, and honored its 1939 Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact with the Soviet Union until 1941, when Germany launched a massive blitzkrieg invasion of the Soviet Union. In the brutal fighting that followed, Nazi troops tried to realize the long-held goal of crushing the world’s major communist power. After the United States entered the war in 1941, Germany found itself fighting in North Africa, Italy, France, the Balkans and in a counterattacking Soviet Union. At the beginning of the war, Hitler and his Nazi Party were fighting to dominate Europe; five years later they were fighting to exist.
Indeed, rather than attempting to throw her weight about in Europe militarily after 1989, Germany refused to participate in the first Gulf war, and only involved herself in the subsequent Yugoslav wars and the US-led war on terror within a firmly multilateral framework.