What is fire? That may seem too-elementary a question, but understanding what it is and where it came from is vitally important for understanding the human journey. The first fires were the quick release of stored sunlight energy that life forms, plants in that instance, had used to build themselves as they made their “decisions,” and it was from vegetation that recently died and was dry enough to burn. The energy was released from burning so fast that it became far hotter (because the molecules were violently "pushed" by the reaction that also released photons) than the biological process of making animals warm-blooded. Hot enough in fact that the released photons' (energetic enough) so that human eyes could see them, in a phenomenon called flames. Flames are visible side-effects of that intense energy release. The rapid movement of the molecules as they rocketed due to that great release of energy is the motion that powers the industrial age. Those rocketing molecules move pistons in automobile engines and , and are behind the damaging explosions of bombs and the propulsive explosions of rockets. For more than one million years, all human fires were made by burning vegetation, and wood in particular. What was fire doing? Energy stored by plants, trees in particular, was violently released by controlled fires for human-serving purposes of warmth, light, food preparation (to obtain more energy from food) and protection from predation, and it also became the heart of social gatherings. Humans have stared into fires for a million years or more.
Wrangham’s hypothesis is more robust and subtle than this essay can do justice to, but I will survey some of the findings, implications, and controversy. Raw food has various nutritional properties that are superior to cooked food, such as vitamins, but because cooked food provides more digestible calories for humans than raw food, it represented an evolutionary advantage. Meat, starches, and seeds are far more digestible when cooked, and are much easier to chew. Today, chimps in will not eat raw seeds of trees, but when a fire passes through the savanna, they search the ground below the trees and eat their cooked seeds.
I developed my current approach by trial and error that was extremely hazardous and painful, and took most of a lifetime to achieve. I hope that this essay can help shorten the learning curve for those whom I seek. Many readers of this essay will get bogged down early on and skip to the end, and they will get out of the experience what they put into it. Such people are not in my target audience, unless they have already mastered this essay’s material, but I have never met even one such person. I will continue studying this subject matter for the remainder of my life, and have a ways to go before I can consider my grasp of it firm. This essay is largely intended to help readers develop a comprehensive awareness of life’s journey on Earth and see when humanity enters the play. When readers can do that and come to appreciate it, they will have an easier time avoiding the egocentric levels of FE awareness (), and reach something that might be called soul-centric. It should help them shed not only those scarcity-based ideologies and their insidious, , but they should also begin to understand why approaches rooted in such ideologies are doomed to failure for this task. We cannot drag our scarcity-based baggage with us for establishing a world of abundance. The GCs are masters of using people’s allegiance to those ideologies to enslave their minds and spirits. What I will be asking of my target audience will be anything but easy, and can actually be quite dangerous if caution is not exercised. But for those who use this material properly, it can improve their understanding in important ways.
I always respected Dennis and Brian the most in the FE field, and I valued their integrity above all else. Their great hearts attracted me to them, not their talent, genius, or fame. I have written plenty about my days with and , and interested readers can discover more if they wish. I hope to convey what the learning experience of carrying their spears was like. My and comprised the kind of education that few survive for long. Although my education with Brian was far gentler, I learned important lessons from him. If not for my adventures, I would not have much worth saying. Even though much of this essay “merely” deals with mainstream science theory and data, . This essay is obviously not the work of a professional scientist, historian, or economist.
One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.
We think the answer to this question is 'Yes.' Despite consideration of their long lifetime, it is important to realize that the most vulnerable phase of trees remains their seedling and sapling stage.
Perhaps most importantly, the limitation that bioclimate envelope models project the realized niche and not the fundamental niche of tree species turns out to be an advantage in a reforestation context.
Second, there is a substantial body of research on how populations of commercially important tree species are adapted to local environments (Morgenstern 1996), and we can further draw on existing programs for commercial forestry species that monitor forest growth and health to determine the need for assisted migration (Parks and Bernier 2010).
So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.
These facts coalesce with morphological observations of the plant's indehiscent fruits and the abundance of fruits and seeds in fossil ground sloth dung to support the concept that the species' current mobility is constrained by the earlier extinction of the Shasta ground sloth and other possible seed vector(s) (Janzen and Martin 1982, Lenz 2001).
Although it is likely that some of these un-sampled areas with high levels of future climate potential, such as Nellis Air Force Base, are already occupied by Joshua tree, they could serve an important conservation function in the future.
Consequently, programs involving seed procurement and deployment, tree breeding and maintenance of breeding populations, and accrual of genetic gains in commercially important traits will be most efficient through transboundary cooperation.