According to this definition, whether it be arresting someone with too much force or even uttering certain statements, can all be classified as police brutality....
The process of policing a democratic society is complex and due to this fact, a police department is probably one of the most difficult public institutions to manage effectively....
For the purpose of this study, communities were defined as people who share a common geographic area. For practical fieldwork reasons, the size of some of the communities identified for the study necessitated that smaller sub-places were selected in order to target interviews and collect data.
However, because crime is an immediate threat to the communities, the police have a highly visible and primary role in overcoming the threat and fear of crime.
I was impressed. The place had virtually all the technology that you’d find at Harvard and Stanford and the Mayo Clinic, and, as I walked through that hospital on a dusty road in South Texas, this struck me as a remarkable thing. Rich towns get the new school buildings, fire trucks, and roads, not to mention the better teachers and police officers and civil engineers. Poor towns don’t. But that rule doesn’t hold for health care.
In most cases, especially in rural areas, there were very few formal employment opportunities. The effects of a lack of formal income were felt most severely by women and children of course. Women resorted to begging and doing 'piecework' (such as washing clothes or doing housework for neighbours). Reliance on social capital resources was sometimes the last resort. Friends, relatives and neighbours sometimes shared food with the families which did not have any. In some communities, reliance on social capital as a means of survival was easier than in others. The Zanzibari community in Chatsworth, Durban, for example, is a particularly close-knit community with a strong civic culture. Sharing and caring for other community members was here the underlying ethic, as highlighted in the following statement made by a community member:
Conner, for example, the courts established the four-factor test to evaluate police use of excessive force but left other, underlying social and moral dilemmas untouched.
The Fourth Amendment states “the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” Despite this right, multiple minorities across the country suffer at the hands of police officers through racial profiling; the singling out of a person or persons as the main suspect of a crime based on...
Specifically access to adequate education was another key issue which respondents from all areas identified as an impediment to find jobs and lift them from poverty. In general, the quality of education varied widely both between and within communities. However, there was a general perception that schools in urban and peri-urban areas were of a better quality. Many communities noted improvements in the general levels of literacy and education.
The study highlighted the linkage between unemployment, inadequate education and food insecurity. Food security was expressed as a serious issue in almost all of the communities profiled. Most respondents identified food insecurity as being the result of unemployment and a lack of land and resources available to households to make a living and grow their own crops. Interestingly, respondents' perceptions of unemployment in their own areas suggested that this was a more serious problem than indicated by census figures. For example in the Eastern Cape, respondents reported that in many of their communities, unemployment was as high as 70-90 percent.
For young people attending school, particularly in rural areas, access to schools was cited as a problem. In rural areas, some schools were as far away as 10km or more. With no public transport available, learners are often forced to walk to school. Accessing government-subsidised schools outside their own residential areas is also expensive, if public transport is available. For example in Ixopo, KwaZulu Natal, children using the Mariathal Primary school spend up to R220,00 per month on transport costs. In Limpopo's Vaalwater and Masemola communities, overcrowding was cited as a problem affecting the quality of the tuition.
With respect to educational differences between younger and older community members, research findings suggest a difference between older community members who are semi-literate or illiterate, and the younger generation who often have a matric qualification. In some areas such as Mpophomeni and Kokstad in KwaZulu Natal, residents have access to Adult Basic Education classes which they are able to attend regularly. Some community members expressed the need for practically-oriented education including life skills training and training for work-related skills such as computer literacy, sewing or even tour-guide operators. Few communities visited were fortunate enough to have access to community centres, housing a library with training facilities where computer skills can be taught and learnt. Young people expressed the need for greater internet connectivity, particularly those living in rural areas. For example some respondents from Limpopo felt that having greater internet connectivity would put them in touch with information on jobs, career guidance and training opportunities.
In both the Eastern Cape and Limpopo, participants in the study reported unfair practices in the housing allocation process, complaining about corruption, nepotism and, in the Eastern Cape particularly, about preference being granted to people who moved into their area from other areas. It is also possible that some of the dissatisfaction expressed about the housing allocation process may emanate from inadequate communication and information about the housing allocation process. Other research has shown that people on waiting lists for RDP homes do perceive corruption as a problem slowing the allocation process. (Richards et al, 2006).