… an advanced level of clinical nursing practice that maximizes the use of graduate educational preparation, in-depth nursing knowledge and expertise in meeting the health needs of individuals, families, groups, communities and populations. It involves analyzing and synthesizing knowledge; understanding, interpreting and applying nursing theory and research; and developing and advancing nursing knowledge and the profession as a whole" (Canadian Nurses Association 2008: 10).
The characters in these films needed mentorship to realize the power of their life experiences and used the writing process as a safe and productive outlet of their emotions and feelings....
The impetus for the introduction of CNS roles arose after World War II, when the shortage of skilled nurses and progressive developments in healthcare science and technology led to the need for more advanced and specialized nursing roles and nurses with the knowledge and skills to support nursing practice at the bedside. An educator interview participant from Quebec comments:
In nursing’s primitive beginning there were no set rules, regulations, or protocols follow nor were there any professional training offered to those in charge of caring for the ill and injured.
The direct relationship between the perceived demand for NPs and the undersupply of physicians as the traditional and primary driver for NP services was troublesome for the sustainability of the NP role. While comparing the different ways that the expanded role in nursing was implemented across the country during the 1970s, Allen (1977, 1999) found that it was perceived in one of two ways: either as a replacement function or a complementary one. In the former, NPs were vulnerable to the supply of physicians and considered an "assistant to the physician," whereas in the latter, the emphasis was on the unique and added value of NPs and their co-existence with others as a distinct healthcare professional.
If the nurse reports the mistake right away to their supervisor, regardless of the consequences and makes sure the patient is safe they are being honest and acting in the best interest of their patient.
Identify how you learn:
Knowledge of how one learns best will assist the mentor and mentee decide on strategies for learning.
Complete on line and identify how one learns best.
Take this information to the first mentorship meeting as mentor and mentee embark on their mentoring journey.
Please complete: This tool assesses one’s ability to listen to others. If you identify that your listening skills require attention, it may encourage you to work on this ability.
If the nurse instead refused to acknowledge or handle the mistake because they feared the consequences, they are showing little integrity and compassion towards their patient, regardless of whether it harmed the patient or not....
Rose, M and Best ,D(2005)Transforming Practice Through Clinical Education .Professional Supervision and Mentoring .London :Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Advanced practice nursing has evolved over the years to become recognized today as an important and growing trend among healthcare systems worldwide. To understand the development and current status of advanced practice nursing within a Canadian context, it is important to explore its historical roots and influences. The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the major influences on the development of advanced practice nursing roles that exist in Canada today, those roles being the nurse practitioner and the clinical nurse specialist. Using a scoping review and qualitative interviews, data were summarized according to three distinct time periods related to the development of advanced practice nursing. They are the early beginnings; the first formal wave, between the mid 1960s and mid 1980s; and the second wave, beginning in the late 1980s and continuing to the present. This paper highlights how advanced practice nursing roles have evolved over the years to meet emerging needs within the Canadian healthcare system. A number of influential factors have both facilitated and hindered the development of the roles, despite strong evidence to support their effectiveness. Given the progress over the past few decades, the future of advanced practice nursing within the Canadian healthcare system is promising.
This paper draws on the results of a scoping review of the literature and key informant interviews conducted for a decision support synthesis commissioned by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation and the Office of Nursing Policy in Health Canada. The overall objective of this synthesis was to develop a better understanding of advanced practice nursing roles, their current use, and the individual, organizational and health system factors that influence their effective development and integration in the Canadian healthcare system (DiCenso et al. 2010a). The detailed methods undertaken for this synthesis are described in an earlier paper in this issue (DiCenso et al. 2010b). Briefly, it consisted of a scoping review of 468 papers that represent Canadian papers ever written about advanced practice nursing and international reviews published between 2003 and 2008. It also included 62 interviews and four focus groups with national and international key informants, including CNSs, NPs, physicians, allied health providers, educators, healthcare administrators, nursing regulators and government policy makers. For this paper, the data have been summarized according to three distinct time periods of advanced practice nursing development: the early beginnings; the first formal wave, between the mid-1960s and mid-1980s; and the second wave, beginning in the late 1980s and continuing to the present. Major historical drivers for advanced practice nursing development during each of the two waves will be described for the CNS and NP roles.
Informally, nurses have been practising in expanded roles in rural and remote areas of Canada for some time, where "nurses have for years been safely accepting many responsibilities traditionally taken by family and general practitioners" (Hodgkin 1977: 829). The chronic shortage of physicians in remote areas of Canada, in particular, created a demand for nurses to work in these underserviced areas. According to a national report (Kulig et al. 2003), the first outpost nurses came from England in 1893 as part of the Grenfell Mission (Graydon and Hendry 1977; Higgins 2008). The mission, led by British medical missionary Wilfred Grenfell, provided some of the earliest permanent medical services in Labrador and northern Newfoundland (Higgins 2008). Before this mission, almost no healthcare resources or formally trained nurses existed in the area. By 1920, nurse midwives were recruited to rural areas of Newfoundland to provide healthcare under challenging conditions (e.g., lack of professional support, lack of equipment and resources, poor transportation and limited communication). Nurses also practised in remote areas of other provinces. For example, an interview participant from Saskatchewan describes the following: