Written at a time when furious arguments were raging about the best way to govern America, The Federalist Papers had the immediate practical aim of persuading New Yorkers to accept the newly drafted Constitution in 1787. In this they were supremely successful, but their influence also transcended contemporary debate to win them a lasting place in discussions of American political theory. Acclaimed by Thomas Jefferson as "the best commentary on the principles of government which ever was written," The Federalist Papers make a powerful case for power-sharing between State and Federal authorities and have only risen in legal influence over the last two centuries. Beeman's analysis helps clarify the goals, at once separate and in concert, of Madison, Hamilton, and Jay during their writing, and his selections show the array of issues-both philosophical and policy-specific-covered by this body of work.
The Battle of Epéhy (18 September 1918) was launched against a 20 mile section of outpost positions for the Hindenburg Line. Following the success at Havrincourt, three corps of the British Fourth Army, one corps of the British Third Army and units of the French First Army. The left and right wings of the advance progressed with difficulty, but the two Australian divisions in the centre of the advance were successful in achieving an advance of three miles. The success of this attack showed to the Allies that the German defence, even on the fortified Hindenburg Line positions, was not impossible to break through.
The story begins two months before the battle. Henry and his army had landed in France on August 14 near the mouth of the Seine River. The objective was to regain English territory lost to France over a period of centuries. The first task was to besiege and conquer a nearby town. Henry was successful, but the time-consuming effort took over a month. It was now early October. Henry realized that his reduced force and the limited time left in the campaigning season, meant that he would not be able to press his attack on the French. Instead, he lead his army north in a "show of force" that would end at the English port of Calais and embarkation back to England.
The Battle of the Somme claimed the biggest loss of soldiers in a single day of fighting ever recorded by the British army. Different people have interpreted the method in which the Battle was carried out in different ways. This affected how the Battle was portrayed at the time and since. This article will investigate these interpretations in an attempt to understand why it is often seen as a turning point in people’s attitudes to the War.
The Battle of the Somme was intended to be a joint attack on 1st August 1916. However, heavy French losses at brought the date of the Somme offensive forward by a month, to 1st July, on the insistence of . The aim was to divert German attention from Verdun in defence of the Somme. would have preferred to attack later on, on the open plains of Flanders where there was more to be gained strategically, and when the raised by had been trained more fully.
However the German onslaught at at the start of 1916, where the German Army Chief of Staff, promised to 'bleed France white', resulted in the diversion of virtually all French manpower and efforts. The German Verdun offensive transformed the intent of the Somme attack; the French demanded that the planned date of the attack, 1 August 1916, be brought forward to 1 July, the aim chiefly being to divert German resources from Verdun in the defence of the Somme. Haig took over responsibility from Joffre for the planning and execution of the attack. Haig meticulous preparations progressed slowly, much to Joffre's irritation. Haig intended to fashion the attack using the ideas of both himself and , whose Fourth army was to spearhead the assault. The attack was preceded by an eight-day of the German lines, beginning on Saturday 24 June. The expectation was that the ferocity of the bombardment would entirely destroy all forward German defences, enabling the attacking British troops to practically walk across No Man's Land and take possession of the German front lines from the battered and dazed German troops. 1,500 British guns, together with a similar number of French guns, were employed in the bombardment. Following the artillery bombardment, it was determined that a would precede the advancing infantry to the German front line, and onwards to the second and third trench lines.