In 1980, under mounting pressure from the Japanese American Citizens League and redress organizations, President Jimmy Carter opened an investigation to determine whether the decision to put Japanese Americans into internment camps had been justified by the government. He appointed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) to investigate the camps. The Commission’s report, titled Personal Justice Denied, found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and concluded that the incarceration had been the product of racism. It recommended that the government pay reparations to the survivors.
The Santa Anita Park race track is converted into an internment camp for evacuated Japanese Americans who will occupy the barracks erected in background in Arcadia, California. Photo taken on April 3, 1942.
On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which forced all Japanese-Americans, regardless of loyalty or citizenship, to evacuate the West Coast. No comparable order applied to Hawaii, one-third of whose population was Japanese-American, or to Americans of German and Italian ancestry. Ten internment camps were established in California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas, eventually holding 120,000 persons. Many were forced to sell their property at a severe loss before departure.
The internment of Japanese-Americans into camps during World War II was one of the most flagrant violations of civil liberties in American history. According to the census of 1940, 127,000 persons of Japanese ancestry lived in the United States, the majority on the West Coast. One-third had been born in Japan, and in some states could not own land, be naturalized as citizens, or vote. After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in December 1941, rumors spread, fueled by race prejudice, of a plot among Japanese-Americans to sabotage the war effort. In early 1942, the Roosevelt administration was pressured to remove persons of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast by farmers seeking to eliminate Japanese competition, a public fearing sabotage, politicians hoping to gain by standing against an unpopular group, and military authorities.
Finally, mention needs to be made of haiku written within the Japanese American community, although with a very few exceptions (see the discussion of the Yuki Teikei Haiku Society, below), there has been almost no contact between English-language and Japanese-language haiku groups and only limited involvement of Japanese Americans in the English-language haiku movement. Because haiku groups in Japan are normally formed around a sensei, or haiku master, it is tempting to conclude that within the Japanese American community it is not considered possible to sustain a respectable group absent a sensei. Still, haiku and senryu groups have formed in America, often under the aegis of Buddhist temples and other Japanese cultural centers. Haiku groups that were formed in the 1930s in California continued under the even more trying circumstances of the internment camps set up by the U.S. government to isolate Japanese American during World War II. A fine collection of the haiku of some of these groups writing in the Kaiko (Crimson Sea) style of the avant-garde Japanese poet Nakatsuka Ippekirô was gathered by Violet Kazue de Cristoforo and published in 1997 in .
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With what justification can it be claimed that the general public opinion in favor of the Japanese American evacuation and internment camps was solely due to the United States government.
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However, that “America” was hardly recognizable during the 1940’s when President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, ordering 120,000 Japanese Americans to be relocated to internment camps.
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They say he brought hope as he promised prompt, vigorous action after asserting this statement, "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." But no one looks back to notice Roosevelt to be the president who signed an executive order to condemn, and relocate all Japanese Americans living along the West Coast to internment camps....
Effectively, this order sanctioned the identification, deportation, and internment of innocent Japanese Americans in War Relocation Camps across the western half of the United States....
Essays On The Help Japanese Internment Japanese Internment Camps Essay Thesis Camps | Psychology mcmaster By: Brian Wojcik - Brian Wojcik has essays on the help japanese internment camps developing technologies for the World Wide Web since 1996 and is the Chief Architect of SnapTrails.