To present this radical demand for the objective transformation of reality, to combat subjectivist immobility which would divert the recognition of oppression into patient waiting for oppression to disappear by itself, is not to dismiss the role of subjectivity in the struggle to change structures. On the contrary, one cannot conceive of objectivity without subjectivity. Neither can exist without the other, nor can they be dichotomized. The separation of objectivity from subjectivity, the denial of the latter when analyzing reality or acting upon it is objectivism. On the other hand, the denial of objectivity in analysis or action, resulting in a subjectivism which leads to solipsistic positions, denies action itself by denying objective reality. Neither objectivism nor subjectivism, nor yet psychologism is propounded here, but rather subjectivity and objectivity in constant dialectical relationship.
Like practical and theoretical educationalists before him, Herbart also makes a distinction between education (Latin: educatio) and teaching (Latin: instructio). ‘Education’ means shaping the development of character with a view to the improvement of man. ‘Teaching’ represents the world, conveys fresh knowledge, develops existing aptitudes and imparts useful skills….
The central problem is this: How can the oppressed as divided, unauthentic beings, participate in developing the pedagogy of their liberation? Only as they discover themselves to be "hosts" of the oppressor can they contribute to the midwifery of their liberating pedagogy. As long as they live in the duality in which to be is to be like, and to be like is to be like the oppressor, this contribution is impossible. The pedagogy of the oppressed is an instrument for their critical discovery that both they and their oppressors are manifestations of dehumanization.
Liberation is thus a childbirth, and a painful one. The man or woman who emerges is a new person, viable only as the oppressor-oppressed contradiction is superseded by the humanization of all people. Or to put it another way, the solution of this contradiction is born in the labor which brings into the world this new being: no longer oppressor nor longer oppressed, but human in the process of achieving freedom.
This solution cannot be achieved in idealistic terms. In order for the oppressed to he able to wage the struggle for their liberation, they must perceive the reality of oppression not as a closed world from which there is no exit, but as a limiting situation which they can transform. This perception is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for liberation; it must become the motivating force for liberating action. Nor does the discovery by the oppressed that they exist in dialectical relationship to the oppressor, as his antithesis -- that without them the oppressor could not exist (4) -- in itself constitute liberation. The oppressed can overcome the contradiction in which they are caught only when this perception enlists them in the struggle to free themselves.
"By universal consent, the supreme goal of education is todevelop in the child the seeds of humanity which he contains." (EmileDurkheim, 1938. The Evolutuion of Educational Thought, :Routledge& Kegan Paul. Translated by Peter Collins 283)
The aim of the biological process of human development andtherefore of education is the full maturation of the 'productive' character ofself-realization.
A major purpose of education is to cultivate open-mindedness andintelligence. Defined in terms of the aptitude for acquiring knowledge,intelligence depends upon an alert curiosity. The cultivation of intelligencedepends on freedom to exercies curiosity. The aim of education is to foster thedevelopment of inner freedom
On the other hand, at a certain point in their existential experience the oppressed feel an irresistible attraction towards the oppressors and their way of life. Sharing this way of life becomes an overpowering aspiration. In their alienation, the oppressed want at any cost to resemble the oppressors, to imitate them, to follow them. This phenomenon is especially prevalent in the middle-class oppressed, who yearn to be equal to the "eminent" men and women of the upper class. Albert Memmi, in an exceptional analysis of the "colonized mentality," refers to the contempt he felt towards the colonizer, mixed with "passionate" attraction towards him.
For many of those concerned with social pedagogy it is place where care and education meet – one is not somehow less than the other (Cameron and Moss 2011). For example, in Denmark ‘care’ can be seen as one of the four central areas that describe the pedagogical tasks:
When superficially analyzed, this fatalism is sometimes interpreted as a docility that is a trait of national character. Fatalism in the guise docility is the fruit of an historical and sociological situation, not an essential characteristic of a people's behavior. It almost always is to the power of destiny or fate or fortune --inevitable forces -- or to a distorted view of God. Under the sway of magic and myth the oppressed (especially the peasants, who are almost submerged in nature) (15) see their suffering, the fruit of exploitation, as the will of God -- as if God were the creator of this "organized disorder."
Reflection. Within these fields of practice there has been a long-standing tradition of looking to learning from experience and, thus, to encouraging reflection (see, for example, Smith 1994). Conversation is central to the practice of informal educators and animators of community learning and development. With this has come a long tradition of starting and staying with the concerns and interests of those they are working with, while at the same time creating moments and spaces where people can come to know themselves, their situations and what is possible in their lives and communities.
The purpose of education is to culture the mind so that the individual canaccomplish all his/her aims in life. Education should enable the individual touse the full potential of the body, mind and spirit... should develop theability to make the best use of his personality, surroundings and circumstancesin order to accomplish the maximum in life for himself and for others. Thepurpose of education would be met if the schools provided educational methodsof self-development by which the individual can gain complete possession of ofall his powers. Broadly speakly, education has two goals which are mutuallydependent: cultivation and development of the individual and the improvement ofsociety... individuals make up the society... the society improves with theimprovement of the individuals who make it up... the individual is the heart ofsociety....only by being true to the full growth of individuals who make it up,can by any chance society be true to itself. The aims of education are tofoster the individual's inner freedom and development towards the following:self-initiated action and acceptance of responsibility for one's own actions,self-direction and intelligent decision making, critical learning andevaluation of others, acquisition of knowledge for resolution of problems,intelligent and flexible adaptation to new situations, creative utilization ofexperiential learning in adaptation to new situations, effective cooperationwith others, self-motivation and a desire to work for one's own purposes.