Penny Chenery bred and raced Secretariat, the 1973 winner of the Triple Crown. Chenery became one of the first women to be admitted as a member of The Jockey Club. From 1976-1984, she served as president of the Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders Association. She also helped found the Thoroughbred Retirement Foundation, an organization dedicated to saving Thoroughbred horses no longer able to compete from possible neglect, abuse, and slaughter. In 2006, Chenery received the Eclipse Award of Merit for a lifetime of outstanding achievement in Thoroughbred racing from the National Thoroughbred Racing Association.
Mary Antoinette Quinby was an active worker in cause of the Relief Association and outfitting of the hospital ship Solace during the Spanish American War. She also spent days and nights at the railway stations assisting the sick returning soldiers. Miss Quinby was founder and president of the Women’s Branch of the New Jersey Historical Society and served as president of Section 11 of the Army-Navy Relief Society. She had the distinction of being appointed by the state of New Jersey to represent the state in the interest of women at the World’s Fair at Chicago in 1982.
After stints at the University of California and the University of Michigan Medical School, Dr. Elizabeth Follansbee graduated from the Women’s Medical College of Philadelphia in 1877. She returned to California where she and two other female physicians founded the Children’s Hospital of San Francisco, one of nine hospitals founded by women and the only one on the West Coast. She eventually moved to Los Angeles where she became the first female member of the Los Angeles Medical Association and was appointed to teach pediatrics at the University of Southern California’s new medical school. Dr. Follansbee arranged for female USC graduates to intern at Children’s Hospital of San Francisco, the only hospital on the West Coast that accepted female interns and residents.
Jane Nylander is President Emerita of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, Former President of Strawberry Banke Museum, and former Curator of Textiles at Old Sturbridge Village. She is a trustee of Old Sturbridge Village, the New Hampshire Historical Society, and the Decorative Arts Trust, and is an Honorary Trustee of Historic Deerfield. Jane is also an accomplished author, having written over 90 publications and articles. She was elected an Honorary Member of the American Institute of Architects in 2010 and received the President’s Award from Old Sturbridge Village in 2009 and the Iris Foundation Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Decorative Arts from the Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture in 2005. With her husband, she shared the Award of Merit from the American Antiques Dealers Association in 2010 and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the New England Chapter of the Victorian Society in 2005.
While these women have had an outstanding impact on society, they aren’t the only ones who have done great work. The NSCDA is full of women who have worked for the betterment of women’s rights and society at large. Below are even more women who deserve our praise and respect.
Throughout the story, Elisa suffers a regression from the masculine role she sees as equality to the feminine role she sees as submissive. Her frustration with the male-dominated society causes her to let go of her dreams for liberation and to become what society expects her to be--a passive woman. Steinbeck portrays women according to his time period. Elisa is representative of the women of the 1930's; she has become "the representative of the feminine ideal of equality and its inevitable defeat" (Sweet 213).
The challenge to unequal gender difference was mounted anew in the 1910s when women in Japans second wave feminism set about to oppose the NeoConfucian ideology of good wife, wise mother. One, Hiratsuka Haruko (pen name Raicho), in 1911 founded the feminist magazine Seito (Bluestocking), where its contributors considered broad social issues such as freedom of love and marriage. Not surprisingly, the magazine was often censored and banned.
Penitentiaries, asylums, temperance societies, and schools all attempted to change individuals in settings modeled on the middle-class home of the American North.
Since women, due to their "natural" moral superiority, dominated the home, they had a special voice -- if not real political power -- in these reforms.
Strong Legendary and Real Heroes: Counterbalancing beliefs about womens place is the historic veneration of some powerful, albeit exceptional, women. Stories of warrior women such as Hua Mulan and various militant Ninja types appear regularly in classical Chinese fiction. In Japan, samurai women appear, like Tomoe Gozen who supposedly rode into battle alongside her husband during Gempei Wars, or Hojo Masako (1157-1225), wife of Japans first shogun, who directed armies and in effect ruled the Shogunate from the convent where she had retired after her husbands death. Later, bands of women armed with the exclusively female sword called naginata, were called upon to defend their towns or castles. Japanese girls today still learn to use this long sword.
The repeated under-representation of women's work is a reflection of a combination of factors. Women's work participation and their status as workers have been affected by various factors. Some of the important ones are women's self-perception, employers' attitude to women employees, traditional positions of authority in the rural and urban areas, and traditional role expectations.
In the modern era, women have been honored for their militant participation during civil wars and the struggles against invaders. In the Taiping Rebellion mainly Hakka women with unbound feet fought both as soldiers and generals against the Manchu government. Women took up arms again in the Boxer Rebellion when young women organized themselves into militant Red Lantern groups. During the Cultural Revolution, the militancy of young female Red Guards attest to their willingness to become revolutionary heroes when struggling for what they perceived to be a just cause. Individual revolutionary female icons who have been held up as powerful figures for women to emulate include Chinas Chiu Chin (Qiu Jin), who in 1907 was executed by the Manchu government, and Soong-li Ching (Soong Ching-ling), wife of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and champion of social justice and womens liberation, and Deng Yingchao, an advocate of womens rights and wife of Zhou Enlai. The societal admiration of female heroines such as these has helped justify the actions of the women who managed successfully to define new roles for themselves alongside men.
When John Steinbeck's short story "The Chrysanthemums" first appeared in the October 1937 edition of (Osborne 479), Franklin D. Roosevelt had just been reelected president. The country was recovering from the Great Depression, unions were developing, and child labor in manufacturing was terminated (Jones 805-6). The first female cabinet member in American history, Frances Perkins, was appointed the Secretary of Labor (Jones 802). She was one of the few women in her time to gain equality in a male-dominated society. For most women, liberation was a bitter fight usually ending in defeat. In "The Chrysanthemums," this struggle for equality is portrayed through Steinbeck's character Elisa Allen. According to Stanley Renner, "The Chrysanthemums" shows "a strong, capable woman kept from personal, social, and sexual fulfillment by the prevailing conception of a woman's role in a world dominated by men" (306). Elisa's appearance, actions, and speech depict the frustration women felt in Steinbeck's masculine world of the 1930's. "Steinbeck's world," observes Charles A. Sweet, Jr., "is a man's world, a world that frustrates even minor league women's liberationists" (214).